Taylor will join in April as director of comms, responsible for positioning the institute as the leading authority on physics.
She will lobby ministers on issues such as the teaching of physics.
Taylor is currently director of comms at the UK Atomic Energy Authority, a position she has held since 1998. She was formerly board secretary at the authority. Prior to that she worked as a consultant, advising on its privatisation.
At the Institute of Physics she replaces Paul Danielsen. He is to join renewable energy consultancy Ecofys UK as CEO.