Taylor was formerly a respected political researcher working with Labour ministers Margaret Beckett and Nick Brown.
It is thought his appointment will free up head of comms Simon Greenberg to take on a more strategic role, including fostering better relations with football's global establishment and developing CSR initiatives.
Greenberg has also signed up Emma Wilkinson, former news editor of London's Evening Standard, in the new role of head of editorial. She will manage the club's growing portfolio of editorial content, such as its official magazine, website and Chelsea TV.
Mourinho hit out at the media after Chelsea's victory away to Liverpool last Sunday, following criticism that his team was not entertaining enough.