According to the survey, carried out by Dr Dean Kruckeberg, professor at the University of Northern Iowa, and Katerina Tsetsura, doctoral candidate at the communications department of Purdue University, the countries with the highest levels of corruption include China, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Countries with the least levels include the UK, US, Canada, New Zealand, Germany and Scandinavian countries.
The study ranked a total of 66 countries according to the following criteria: Tradition of self determination of citizens; the perception that there are applicable laws against corruption; responsibility of the government to the citizen at all levels; high levels of literacy; journalistic training standards; established and published codes of professional ethics for journalists; freedom of the press, and competition.
The highest ranked country in Latin America was Chile, which took 11th place, the only one to achieve a scoring similar to western developed markets. It was followed by Brazil, which shared position 14 with Hungary. Argentina and Mexico were in 19th place.