Adams, who served as private secretary to both John Major and Tony Blair during the 1990s, received his sentence for an attack that took place on the night of the 2015 General Election.
During the six-day trial, the court heard that Adams, 56, raped a woman in her 20s who had fallen asleep on his sofa in Blackheath, south east London, after he stayed up to watch the General Election results.
The victim woke up during the attack but Adams, who was described by prosecutors as "highly manipulative", sought to cover his tracks by telling the woman the following day he could not remember what had happened.
According to his Linkedin profile, Adams served as an associate director at APCO following his stint as private secretary and went on to set up his own public affairs agency, Foresight Consulting, in 2001.
He ran the company, whose clients included the Police Federation, for nearly a decade before joining Lansons in 2010.
Adams remained at Lansons for a year, as a director, but quit the agency to launch a campaign for higher professional standards in lobbying, called ‘Stand Up for Lobbying’, now defunct.
He later joined Riverside Communications as senior counsel, where his role was to work with clients as well as helping to develop the business, but left after little more than a year.
In the years following, Adams held high-profile roles including chairman of the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry and of The Professional Lobbying Company, a company which was dissolved in 2013.
He was most recently managing director of the professional services company Solent Business Services.
Sentencing Adams on Tuesday, Judge Jonathan Mann QC told him: "This brings to an end your aspirations and political career."
Adams will have to sign the sex offenders register for life.