PRWeek salary survey report 2000 - Is scarce talent commanding higher salaries for PR pros, or is talk of inflated pay scales just fodder for the rumor mill?

Hal Crandall was appalled. A client needed a PR executive fast.

Hal Crandall was appalled. A client needed a PR executive fast.

Hal Crandall was appalled. A client needed a PR executive fast.

One prospect had shown up that the client really liked. He was making

dollars 60,000. He wanted dollars 100,000 plus options that would be

worth dollars 1 million over the next four years.

Forget it, the New York executive recruiter wanted to tell his


Other, cheaper talent was available. All they had to do was wait a


Instead, they caved immediately. ’Believe it or not, he got it,’

Crandall recalls, bemused.

Stories like this are rife in the PR industry, creating an image of a

business where the price of talent is out of control. And the recruiters

themselves are fuelling this. ’For new people, we’re seeing 10% to 20%

minimum increases over last year,’ Crandall claims. ’We’re seeing an

average of 15% to 20% increases over last year,’ says Marie Raperto,

president of The Cantor Concern. And she’s heard rumors that industry

salaries, especially on the agency side, are hitting the 35% mark.

But rumors are apparently just what they are. Though the PR business is

going through an extraordinarily prosperous time, the PRWeek Salary

Survey 2000 shows that salaries rose, on average, by 7.9% in 1999, with

a further hike of 7.3% expected this year. These numbers are far higher

than the 1.5% average reported by the National Bureau of Labor


And they’re higher than the 6.6% reported by the advertising industry

(source: Advertising Age). But they are nowhere near the mythic levels

being heard over the grapevine of Internet, cell phone and other


’Ah, but what about places like New York, Silicon Valley? What about

hi-tech, healthcare, public affairs?’ you ask.

The fact is, even in the hottest sectors, though the gains are above the

7.9% norm, they are far closer to the overall average than rumors would

have us believe.

Of course, it’s human nature to focus on the exceptions. Look at the

dot-com explosion. Everyone talks about the Amazons and the Yahoo!s, and

fails to mention the countless start-ups that fail to make it to an IPO,

let alone the Nasdaq. And so it is with salaries, especially in an

industry where talent is scarce. The tales of 35% salary hikes and

overnight stock millionaires dominate the conversation and the thinking

of everyday job hunters as much as job sellers and job hawkers.

Part of the reason for the myths that surround salary hikes is the fact

that recruiters deal in people who move jobs - and that’s more likely to

get you a better raise. ’You’re getting the number - 15% to 20% - from

people who are willing to move,’ says Clarke Caywood, chairman of the

Department of Integrated Marketing and Communications at Northwestern


But there’s a degree to which reports from executive recruiters are

self-serving. PRWeek’s analysis suggests that those who have been with

their current employer for less than a year received an average raise of

7.5%; and those who’ve been in their current position for less than a

year (i.e., they’ve been promoted) took home an extra 8.9%.

With a sample size of 3,611 PR executives (over three times the level of

response to last year’s survey), the PRWeek Salary Survey 2000 thus

provides a highly accurate picture of salaries and benefits across the


This accuracy is essential for the economic and political health of the

PR industry, says Jack Bergen, president of the Council of Public

Relations Firms. ’Rumors and salary surveys with invalid methodologies

do serious damage to the people that are in the business of public


’Some of the salary surveys that are being done are crazy. They’re

showing 30% to 35% increases,’ Bergen adds. Bad surveys create

unrealistic expectations among employees and unneeded fears among

employers. ’Salaries represent about half the cost structure of a

business, and some of the salary surveys we’ve seen over the past year

have been totally out of line with reality.

It’s a dangerous spiral that is sending salaries beyond reasonable

levels, which in turn drives billing rates out of sight.’

The creation of unrealistic expectations is a concern that is borne out

by the survey. Asked what percentage pay raise they would require to

quit their job for another, the average pro is expecting over 20%. Is it

any wonder that job hopping is so rife?

PR pros are now moving companies, on average, once every three


Nearly 50% of respondents have been with their current employer for less

than two years, and a typical respondent had been working there for 3.4

years. In some sectors, like hi-tech and consumer PR, the average length

of stay is lower still, at just over two years.

As a relatively young industry (the average age is 36.5), a tendency to

job hop is not altogether surprising. But it’s more than just a societal

thing. According to a Pricewaterhouse-Coopers survey published in

November, the number of people who think it acceptable to move jobs

every two or three years is higher in PR (37%) than any other sector,

the average being 21%. ’We know the PR market well, but we are a bit

surprised by the attitudes to job mobility in PR,’ says PWC recruitment

specialist Alannah Hunt.

’These are not young account executives, who traditionally butterfly

from one job to the next fairly quickly, but people at the top end of

the market, who, in other professions, are looking for stability in

their careers at this stage.’

Coming of age

That said, whether it’s the shortage of talent or the growing

recognition of PR, the rising salaries increasingly validate the PR

industry as a profession. PR is now achieving comparable status in

corporations and agencies with fields such as advertising and other hot

below-the-line media like direct marketing.

According to a survey by Crandall Associates, an account executive at a

direct marketing advertising agency with two years’ experience makes

dollars 33,000. An A/E in PR will make dollars 38,000. Account execs in

ad agencies still earn more (dollars 45,600), but at the top end, the

value of PR pros is truly being felt. A CEO at an ad agency will take

home dollars 163,100 (source: Advertising Age). An SVP at a corporation

will bring in dollars 172,808. An EVP at a large PR agency earns even

more - dollars 205,905.

’You’re talking about a field that’s arrived in terms of

professionalism,’ Caywood says. More and more, salaries in PR are

looking like those ’that used to be attributed to people in finance or

law,’ he says.

Matt Gonring, managing partner of communications and integrated

marketing at Arthur Andersen, believes the statistics prove that PR has

made the leap from business afterthought to strategic asset in the minds

of those who hold the purse strings. ’Business is willing to pay more

for generalists and problem solvers, rather than functional specialists

PR pros have acknowledged strategic skills,’ he says. ’Students studying

for MBAs in public relations are commanding salaries of dollars 60,000,

and they’re being snapped up.’

Agency salaries spiral

Although agency salaries still lag behind corporate ones, the difference

between the two is narrowing rapidly as competition for talented staff

continues to increase.

At first glance (see table 6), corporation salaries (dollars 76,421) are

about 9.4% ahead of PR agencies (dollars 69,833), with PR positions in

government/politics (dollars 56,415) lagging behind, along with

non-profits (dollars 54,047), and education professors (dollars


But closer analysis (see table 11) reveals that particularly among the

medium-to-large-size PR agencies, salaries are now neck and neck with -

or ahead of - salaries in corporations. Individuals working at agencies

with 100 to 1,000 employees earn dollars 71,194 compared with dollars

63,667 at a similar size corporation. And in agencies with 1,000-plus

employees, the agency pro (dollars 86,522) again earns more than the

corporation pro (dollars 84,198). It’s only because there are such a

large number (66%) of agency pros working at smaller agencies (with

fewer than 100 employees) that the statistics get skewed.

Further evidence of the shifting balance of salary power is provided by

an examination of salary increases (see table 3). Agencies are

definitely pulling ahead of corporations. ’The agencies are seeing the

bigger increases, because they’re all fighting for the same pool of

people,’ Raperto says.

Agency salaries rose by 10.2%. In corporations, salaries rose by


At medium and large-size agencies, the salary hikes were even greater,

rising by more than 12%; whereas in corporations with 1,000-plus

employees, salaries rose just 6.6%. As further evidence of the pressure

on agencies, 15% of agency pros enjoyed a salary increase over and above

their annual review specifically to stop them from leaving. Across the

industry as a whole this figure was 12% to 13%.

And agency salary inflation is expected to continue. Agency pros expect

an 8.5% increase in salary next year. In corporations, the expected

increase is 5.8%.

It’s a far world from the picture in government/politics and non-profit,

where salaries and increases are more prosaic. But increases in all PR

sectors were at least a couple of times the national average of


That’s a sign of the rising maturity and importance of the PR field,

experts say.

More surprising was the fact that self-employed individuals are among

the best paid in the PR business, with an annual take of dollars 85,644.

This may be because of the rising importance of the Internet and virtual


’It shows that in your business, you can be a virtual person and do very

well,’ Bergen says. The PRWeek Salary Survey also reveals that the

self-employed are among the most contented of all people in their jobs.

The majority reported that they had left agency life in order to go


Perhaps we can conclude that they are enjoying a break from the

pressures of agency life.

Does size matter?

The corporate PR market is famed for its high salaries, but a growing

distinction can be seen between small and larger corporations. The

salary (dollars 54,300) and benefits in companies of fewer than 100

people perhaps confirms opinions held in some circles that small

businesses don’t value PR very much, or simply can’t afford it. In

companies of 101 to 1,000 employees, PR salaries rise appreciably

(dollars 63,667), and rise more steeply still in companies with

1,000-plus employees, to dollars 84,198.

But larger corporations are not having it all their way. The smallest

companies (8.1%) offered bigger salary increases than the largest ones

(6.7%), which suggests that smaller companies are working hard to keep a

hold of staff.

Smaller companies struggle to compete on benefits and other bonuses.

Only 68% of smaller companies offer 401K plans, while 83% of 1,000-plus

firms do. And smaller companies offer bonuses of 3.5%; while those with

more than 1,000 employees averaged 6.5%.

Hi-tech hype

Though the hi-tech sector may be drawing a huge amount of attention, and

talent is scarce, it is still by no means the best-paid sector (see

table 8), with an average salary of dollars 69,957. The best field to be

in when it comes to PR salaries is financial services (dollars 78,939).

Next come utilities (dollars 74,507), retail (dollars 73,730),

industrial/manufacturing (dollars 73,537), food and beverage (dollars

73,013) and professional services (dollars 72,296) - all ahead of


That said, hi-tech PR pros are among the youngest in our survey. A

typical hi-tech pro is 32 (the overall average is 36.4), and has worked

7.3 years in PR (the average is 9.7). Hi-tech pros are also likely to

have been in their current position for just 2.2 years (average 3.4),

and with their current employer for just 2.7 years (average 4.5). All

this helps to explain why salaries are rising at an above-average rate

of 10.7% (vs. 7.6%) in hi-tech, and why hi-tech PR pros expect

above-average increases (8.9%) in their next pay packet. It also

provides much-needed context for the focus on this sector.

Other surprises: the healthcare/pharmaceuticals (dollars 66,916) and

telecommunications (dollars 68,204) sectors don’t figure quite as high

in the stakes as their attention suggests.

Less surprising is the fact that the lowest paid sectors are education

specialists (dollars 49,835) and PR pros in the non-profit (dollars

51,534) and sports PR (dollars 53,724) arenas, where job satisfaction is

higher and pay is appreciably lower.

What do you practice?

Similarly, skills count in the PR business for some specialties. The

specialist field of crisis management (dollars 90,110) is the best- paid

practice area (see table 9). ’If you’ve managed a crisis we know you can

make more money so long as you didn’t start the crisis,’ says one

executive recruiter.

It’s not just because of the discipline, of course. At 41.3, crisis pros

are typically the oldest, the most loyal (average tenure is 6.5 years

with their current employer) and the most steady (they’ve been in crisis

communications for an average of five years). That said, crisis

communications experts are among the most likely (45%) to leave their

job in the next 12 months.

Pros who delve into the corporate, M&A and investor relations market are

similarly well paid, at dollars 88,051, but are enjoying a more exciting

period of remuneration on the back of the Wall Street explosion. Salary

increases in this field were the highest at 9.3% on average. Salary

bonuses (8.4%) and future salary expectations (7.3%) are also the

highest. And PR pros in this field are the most sought after (74%) by


Also highly valued are pros in public affairs/government relations

(dollars 82,207) and marketing communications (dollars 82,300). The

commodity skills of media relations (dollars 62,275), internal

communications (dollars 60,401) and community relations (dollars 54,747)

are least valued.


Not surprisingly, the capital of PR, New York City, offers the top PR

salaries (see table 2), at dollars 84,566. But salaries are not actually

going up as fast in New York as the executive recruiters will have you

believe, up a fraction over the norm at 8.5%. The specialist skills

demanded in Washington, DC, on the other hand, have seen an explosion of

18.4% in salary raises. This is also the second-highest- paid market in

the country for PR pros, at dollars 82,547.

The West Coast also is a focus of highly-paid talent. Pros in Los

Angeles/Orange County earn dollars 78,707 on average, while salaries in

San Francisco/San Jose aren’t far behind, at dollars 76, 842. But again,

salaries on the West Coast generally are not as high as the rumors

suggest. In LA/Orange County, salaries rose by 7.8%. In San

Francisco/San Jose, they were up slightly above the norm at 8.5%. And

proving that it isn’t just the West and the East that’s enjoying the

most dramatic growth in salaries, Atlanta salaries are rising at


PR is one of the few industries in which women have been able to achieve

fame and even some fortune. Renowned for their superior communication

skills and tact, they account for an overwhelming majority (65%) of the

personnel in the industry. Yet women’s salaries are as low in PR as they

are in business as a whole, with the average female salary almost 40%

less than what the average male takes home (see table 4).

PR by chromosome

Men take in an average of dollars 81,920 vs. dollars 59,026 for women -

a dollars 22,894 difference.

Current salary trends will widen rather than narrow the difference,

since male salaries increased by 8.3% and female by just 7.6%.

This disparity can be partly be explained by age and experience. The

average male in the PR industry is 39.9 years old whereas women are

typically more than five years younger. Also men have been in PR for

11.8 years, women 8.5 (see table 1 for full breakout).

Another factor is the choice of job: in what have always been

traditionally the best-paid jobs (i.e., in corporations) men outnumber

women by 30% to 26%; in the least well-paid area (non-profit), women

outnumber men by 20% to 14%.

Men also tend to work in the best-paid sectors (financial services,

industrial/manufacturing) and practices (crisis communications,

corporate/M&A/investor relations, public affairs), while more women work

in lower-paid jobs in community relations and internal


But these factors explain only so much. Even with direct comparisons,

using specific job titles in specific positions, the numbers show a

distinct discrimination. A male VP at an agency earns dollars 97,928;

his female counterpart gets dollars 84,087. Even in more junior

positions (where considerations of skill and experience are less

important) there is a bias. An account manager/PR manager at a

corporation earns either dollars 68,530 or dollars 56,819, depending on

sex. And an account executive at an agency picks up dollars 40,799 vs.

dollars 36,665.

In many ways, the numbers simply reflect a reality of the American

economy: women tend to get a raw deal. It’s surprising, then, to note

that the numbers don’t seem to be having a huge impact on morale. About

45% of men and 48% of women report that they are dissatisfied with their

career opportunities. And while 42% of women are likely to change jobs

(vs. 35% for men), that’s partly a reflection of age and seniority. The

fact is that younger people are more likely to change jobs.

Still, the divide between male and female income presents potential for

friction and decay that should be resolved, experts say. ’The industry

should focus in on closing that gap. It’s really unconscionable. It’s

bad for all of us,’ Caywood says.


There’s also a marked discrimination between ethnic groups, but it’s not

so much in terms of salaries (see table 4) as representation. Asian,

Hispanic and to a lesser extent African-American pros are younger than

the average white PR pro, and so we can expect salaries to be lower, as

they are. And these communities are enjoying above-average rises in


But at 91%, the industry remains almost religiously white. So much for

multicultural PR.

Satisfaction guaranteed

One thing that rising salaries can’t appear to guarantee is job


While a higher-than-average number of corporate and agency pros concede

that they are very well rewarded or well rewarded (43% and 42%

respectively), a lower-than-average number of corporate and agency pros

(57% and 54%) appear to find their job rewarding (see tables 16 and


Incidentally, as well as remuneration, a clear correlation can be made:

those who feel that the company training program is adequate are more

likely to be satisfied, to feel they have good career opportunities, and

to remain loyal to the company.

The dark side

In a market where talent is scarce, it is inevitable that job-hopping

will continue (see table 20).

But strong as it apparently is, it appears that at least part of the

job-hopping phenomenon can be explained by the darker side of the

American boom. According to the PRWeek survey, 6.3% of PR pros left

their previous job due to downsizing (see table 21).

So while salaries are up, stability is down. Overall, 11% of respondents

are concerned that their job is under threat. And the fear is most

marked in corporations (23%) and non-profits (12%) (see table 19).

’There is a lot of churning of people,’ says Doug Pinkham, president of

the Washington, DC-based Public Affairs Council. Pinkham’s board has 200

people, and he’s concerned about the speed with which the faces in the

chairs change. He estimates that 20% of board members have changed due

to downsizing this past year.

’Even among people who are within a company and want to stay there,

there’s a great sense of fear. People are never sure what’s in store for

them,’ Pinkham says.

But while job insecurity is a concern among corporate pros, the laws of

supply and demand are still very much in favor of the employee.

Executive recruiters are out in force, with 59% of PR pros reporting

that they have been approached by a headhunter in the past 12 months.

And it appears that as well as agency pros (69%), corporate pros (68%)

are right in the center of the radar screen, with those in

government/politics (30%) and non-profits (42%) somewhat off picture

(see tables 22 and 23).

What’s more, for those who have been singled out for attention, it

appears that the number of approaches is increasing: 50% said they had

more approaches in 1999 than 1998; 42% had the same; and only 8% said

they’d had fewer.

It’s clear that if you’re half decent, you shouldn’t have much trouble

finding a new job

PR is enjoying a new-found validity in the business market, and salaries

are clearly rising to reflect its new prominent position. The only

question on the horizon is what happens when the economy falters. The

key, says Clarke Caywood, is with a new generation of better-trained PR

pros. In this regard, the industry is doing unspectacularly: around 60%

believe that their employer provides sufficient training for their

needs, with PR agencies doing better than the rest, at 68%. With his MBA

program, however, Caywood is not leaving anything to chance.

’We don’t think of our students as just staff any more,’ he says. ’We

are training people to be managers, not staff. If people view themselves

as part of the management team, they’re less likely to be


The PRWeek Salary Survey 2000 was conducted in January and February

2000. A lengthy questionnaire was sent out to 30,000 PR executives. The

results were logged and analyzed by Impulse Research, an independent

research firm based in Los Angeles. With a sample size of 3,611

respondents, the results are accurate to +/-3%. This article provides

selected highlights from a full report that is now available from

PRWeek. The report includes a full breakdown of the data by sex, region,

ethnicity, job title, type of company, industry sector and industry

practice and includes more detailed information on areas such as

lifestyle, benefits, bonuses, training programs, job satisfaction and

countless other topics. The cost of the full report is dollars 250. Call

Jessica Sung at (212) 251-2600 for more information.

1 Sex

Category                                  Average       Male      Female

Breakdown (total )                            100       35.7        65.3

Age                                          36.5       40.1        34.5

Years spent in PR                            10.0       12.4         8.8

Years in current position                     4.6        5.6         4.0

Years with current employer                   3.4        4.4         2.9

Salary (dollars )                          66,979     81,920      59,026

Salary increase (%)                           7.9        8.3         7.7

Next salary increase (%)                      7.3        7.5         7.2

More than one review last year (%)           13         11            13

Minimum hike to leave job (%)                17.6       19.7        16.5

Vacation days                                15.6       16.5        15.2

Bonus as % of salary                          5.5        7.3         4.4

Source: PRWeek/Impulse Research

2 City

City                                      Salary        % increase

New York                          dollars 84,566               8.5

Washington, DC                    dollars 82,547              18.4

LA/Orange County                  dollars 78,707               7.8

San Francisco                     dollars 76,842               8.5

Houston                           dollars 71,580              20.3

Boston                            dollars 67,568               5.5

Atlanta                           dollars 66,108              10.8

Chicago                           dollars 64,779               5.9

Dallas                            dollars 64,764               8.7

Seattle                           dollars 63,473               4.4

Denver                            dollars 55,794               6.4

Minneapolis                       dollars 53,886               6.7

3 Who you are by where you work

Category        Average      PR Corpor-     Gov/    Non-    Self- Educa-

                         agency   ation politics  profit employed   tion

Age                36.4    32.7    37.9     40.8    38.4     43.4   38.2

Years spent in PR   9.7     7.4    11.0     11.7    10.5     15.5   10.5

Years in

current position    2.6     2.7     3.5      4.6     3.9      5.8    4.0

Years with

current employer    4.5     3.5     5.0      7.0     5.0      5.4    4.8

Salary (dlrs)    66,979  69,833  76,421   56,415  54,047   85,644 49,835


increase (%)        7.6    10.2     6.9      5.2     5.0      6.7    5.4

Next salary

increase (%)        6.1     8.5     5.8      2.9     3.4      4.7    3.8

More than one


last year (%)      13      15      13        8      12        8        8

Minimum hike

to leave job (%)   22.1    22.6    22.8     20.5    20.3     26.4   21.3

Vacation days      15.3    14.0    15.6     17.7    17.0     11.4   16.1

Bonus as per

cent of

salary (%)          4.4     4.4     8.4      0.3     1.5      1.4    1.7

Own shares in

company (%)          25      24      51        1       0       57      9

Source: PRWeek/Impulse Research



Exec. vice president                                     dollars 155,436

Sr. vice president                                       dollars 139,877

Chairman/president/CEO/COO                               dollars 122,394

Vice president                                            dollars 84,964

Communications/PR dir.                                    dollars 70,019

Freelance consultant/sole practitioner                    dollars 68,635

Public affairs                                            dollars 61,950

Account supervisor                                        dollars 61,643

Account manager/PR manager                                dollars 57,352

Senior account executive                                  dollars 49,684

Account executive/PR officer                              dollars 37,976

Account coordinator                                       dollars 33,102

Assistant account executive                               dollars 28,929


Financial services                                        dollars 78,939

Utilities and power                                       dollars 74,507

Retail                                                    dollars 73,730

Industrial/manufacturing                                  dollars 73,557

Food and beverage                                         dollars 73,013

Services                                                  dollars 72,296

Hi-tech                                                   dollars 69,957

Telecommunications                                        dollars 68,204

Arts/entertainment/media                                  dollars 66,992

Healthcare/pharmaceutical                                 dollars 66,916

Government/public services                                dollars 62,931

Travel & tourism/leisure                                  dollars 59,688

Sports                                                    dollars 53,724

Non-profit/charity                                        dollars 51,534

Consumer                                                  dollars 50,425

Education                                                 dollars 49,835


13 Title and setting

Title                    PR Agency   Corporation  Government/   Non-profit


Average                dlrs 69,220   dlrs 75,621  dlrs 55,703  dlrs 53,514


CEO/COO               dlrs 126,571           N/A          N/A  dlrs 74,875

Exec. vice president  dlrs 156,546           N/A          N/A          N/A

Senior vice president dlrs 136,272  dlrs 172,808          N/A dlrs 107,375

Vice president         dlrs 84,895  dlrs 103,076  dlrs 65,012  dlrs 64,526


PR director            dlrs 84,952   dlrs 87,695  dlrs 57,021  dlrs 55,886

Account manager/

PR manager/

supervisor             dlrs 60,152   dlrs 61,713  dlrs 55,715  dlrs 47,105

Senior account

executive              dlrs 48,774   dlrs 55,975          N/A  dlrs 47,707

Account executive/

PR officer             dlrs 34,870   dlrs 44,141  dlrs 48,170  dlrs 37,449

Account coordinator/


account executive      dlrs 28,142   dlrs 36,250  dlrs 35,000  dlrs 36,180

14 BENEFITS 401K PLAN 72.7%

Guaranteed bonus                                       8.3%

Performance-related bonus                             40.1%

Profit sharing                                         2.3%

Share options                                         15.1%

Car                                                    5.8%

Health plan                                           83.2%

Paid maternity leave                                  25.9%

Shares 24.2%

Other 3.6%

Source: PRWeek/Impulse Research

15 What is your bonus measured by?

Company-wide performance                              43.3%

Individual performance                                37.6%

Team performance                                      20.2%

Practice area performance                              7.2%

Regional team performance                              5.8%

Bonus is guaranteed                                    2.3%

No bonus                                              23.5%

Other                                                  2.5%


16 Pros who said they felt their job was rewarding

Total                                                59%

PR agency                                            54%

Corporation                                          57%

Government/politics                                  63%

Non-profit                                           65%

Self-employed                                        79%

Education                                            64%



Total                                                41%

PR agency                                           4 2%

Corporation                                          43%

Government/politics                                  38%

Non-profit                                           33%

Self-employed                                        66%

Education                                            34%



Total                                                53%

PR agency                                            69%

Corporation                                          43%

Government/politics                                  31%

Non-profit                                           38%

Self-employed                                        78%

Education                                            47%


Total                                                11%

PR agency                                             3%

Corporation                                          23%

Government/politics                                   7%

Non-profit                                           12%

Self-employed                                         7%

Education                                            12%


20 Are you likely to change jobs in the next 12 months?

No                                                    55.3%

Yes                                                   37.5%

Don’t know                                             8.2%

21 If you changed employers in the last 12 months, what was your main

reason for leaving?

Job dissatisfaction                                   26.8%

Conflict with manager/colleagues                       4.6%

More interesting job                                   5.8%

Downsizing                                             6.3%

Relocation requirements                                7.0%

Other                                                 14.7%

Promotion to a higher position                        15.7%

More money/better package                             24.6%



Yes                                                  59%

No                                                   41%



No approaches                                        36%


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