He takes the helm at what is the group's largest division, accounting for two-thirds of its business and including brands such as Longman, Prentice Hall and Addison Wesley.
This is seen by Pearson CEO Marjorie Scardino as a natural progression for Fallon, who has had a dual role heading corporate affairs and as president of the company's US arm, Pearson Inc.
Scardino said: 'John Fallon has helped us change the culture and business of Pearson over the last five years and has been an important part of our central management team.'
Fallon, who joined as corporate affairs director in 1997 and was appointed to the US role in 2000, has been replaced by head of corporate communications Luke Swanson.
Swanson said one of his first tasks would be to recruit a US -based senior investor and corporate relations expert, a role previously covered by Fallon.
He added that a decision on whether to appoint a replacement for his former role was under review, but stressed there were no plans to review Pearson's corporate PR agency, Brunswick.
Swanson joined in October 2000 from drinks giant Diageo, where he was head of communications for its spirits and wine business, UDV. He previously had communications roles with The Prince's Trust and Business in the Community.