Until March Goldsworthy was a special adviser to senior Liberal Democrat Danny Alexander in his role as Chief Secretary to the Treasury and a member of "the quad", comprising the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer.
She will work at Hanover at the same time as campaigning to return as an MP in the 2015 general election.
She served one term as MP for Falmouth and Camborne between 2005 and 2010, but lost the seat by 66 votes to Tory MP George Eustice.
The Liberal Democrats selected her as their candidate for the seat, now known as Camborne, Redruth and Hayle, in March.
Earlier this year Hanover hired Steve Richards, chief political commentator at The Independent, as a part-time senior adviser.