The greatest communicators of all time - Their messages moved the masses and changed the world. PRWeek chooses the great influencers of the twentieth century and all time

Theoretically, it’s never been easier for mankind to communicate.

Theoretically, it’s never been easier for mankind to communicate.

Theoretically, it’s never been easier for mankind to

communicate.



If you wanted to send a message in the third century, as Henri Jean

Martin, author of The History and the Power of Writing, memorably

pointed out, you would have to skin a young goat, rub the skin clean,

remove all the hairs and then wash it over with a lime-based substance

just to get some parchment to write on.



Today, you can just pick up your phone or pound the keys on your

keyboard and hit ’send.’



And yet the failure to communicate effectively is one of the recurring

(if not tedious) themes of business, politics, society and life. A dying

Paul Newman in Cool Hand Luke announces, ’What we have here is a failure

to communicate.’ British novelist Sir Malcolm Bradbury has a character

tour India, lecturing on ’Harold Pinter and the failure to communicate,’

and, when asked what his audiences thought, says, ’I don’t know, they

didn’t seem to understand a word I said.’ For public figures, be they

presidents or poets, achieving the dictionary definition of

communication - ’the imparting or exchange of information, ideas and

feelings’ - has never been harder.



It’s notable that a period in which four significant new communications

technologies (radio, cinema, TV and the Internet) were either invented

or perfected and delivered to the masses, only three of PRWeek’s 10

greatest communicators of all time, Martin Luther King Jr., Franklin

Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, come from the 20th century (and

Churchill and FDR were born in the 19th).



Jesus, Muhammad and Aristotle had an easier job in some respects: they

didn’t have to worry that their audience was about to change channels

for its weekly shot of Jeopardy! But they didn’t need an army of PR

professionals to help them either. Jesus, irrespective of whether you

think he was the son of God, was an awesome communicator. As John Durham

Peters points out in his book Speaking into the Air: A History of the

Idea of Communication, while the great Greek communicator Socrates

favored dialogue, it was Christ who, in the gospels, favored scattering

his words, like good seed, over his audience. Dissemination is, Peters

maintains, a more democratic and ultimately more rewarding way of

spreading knowledge.



In his three-year mission, Jesus established a strong, ethical public

personality for himself; said the right things to his target audience,

the Jewish underclass; and forced the powers that be, ultimately, to

resort to violence to stop him. This was, perhaps, the world’s first

truly great PR campaign, mounted by a man whose instinctive sense of

political theater comes across in the routine with the loaves and

fishes, the attack on the moneychangers and the entrance to Jerusalem on

an ass.



Although Jesus’ brand of Judaism was open to non-Jews, it took a former

tax inspector named Paul to broaden its appeal. With the

singlemindedness of a great PR pro, he saw that there were a few serious

obstacles to overcome if the message was to achieve the right market

penetration. Obstacles like the insistence on circumcision for male

converts. So Paul reinvented Jesus’ message rather in the way that Bill

Clinton, taking one look at the old, unelectable Democrats, invented the

New Democrats. Clinton and Paul both remained oblivious to the cries of

the betrayed even though, in Paul’s case, the betrayed included Jesus’

brother, James the Righteous.



You could argue that excluding the technology, the basics of

communication have not changed beyond recognition in the 1,971 years

since Christ’s death. The key is to define your objectives, your target

audience and your message while always assessing the public mood. While

it’s fashionable to be cynical about politicians who haven’t had a

single idea that hasn’t come from a focus group, even presidents like

Roosevelt who are continually rated as great by historians were not

afraid to make use of George Gallup’s greatest wheeze.



It’s too easy to fall for the mythologized view of the past that says

that great leaders, like Abraham Lincoln, would never have used spin

doctors.



But a noble purpose and the techniques of PR don’t have to be mutually

exclusive. Nobody illustrates this better than Martin Luther King

Jr.



No one ever accused him of lacking convictions and yet, particularly

between 1955 and 1964 when Robert Kennedy resigned as attorney general,

he orchestrated a marvelously effective PR campaign, inspired by the

tactics of ’non-violent protest’ perfected by Mohandas Gandhi.



King had a tough job. He had to make a nation care about a cause to

which a minority was vehemently opposed and which the silent majority

preferred not to think about. He called in James Lawson, one of Gandhi’s

students, to help him desegregate Nashville’s lunch counters in 1958. In

1961, inspired in part by JFK’s inaugural speech, King took the Freedom

Riders south to desegregate public transportation. It was a dangerous

strategy that saw his followers trapped inside churches while white mobs

rampaged outside and frequently arrested for their own protection. But

these incidents inspired others to join the protest, generated massive

media coverage and put pressure on the administration.



The ultimate PR coup was King’s 1963 campaign to desegregate Birmingham,

AL. Robert Kennedy urged King not to force the issue in Birmingham

because the city administration, including police commissioner Bull

Connor (who had boasted he could solve the racial problem with ’two

policemen and a dog’), was in its closing months. King, in his immortal

letter from Birmingham jail, insisted that he couldn’t wait because

’wait has almost always meant never.’ Yet it’s also true to say that if

you were going to pick a fight with the segregationists and do it on

your terms, Connor was the perfect opponent, as he soon proved when he

arrested a thousand black children marching with King. The use of

children was controversial, with both Robert Kennedy and Malcolm X

objecting, but in pure PR terms it was a stroke of genius. In May 1963,

a settlement to desegregate Birmingham was announced. King’s movement,

the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, saw its role as creating

the public demand for action on civil rights that would give the Kennedy

administration the alibi to act.



Five years later, King would walk through Chicago, without the

cooperation of an administration that didn’t like his opposition to the

Vietnam War, and achieve almost nothing.



Truly effective communication is not just a matter of what is said, it’s

about how it’s being said and who’s saying it. When Mohammed Ali became

the 20th century’s finest self-publicist, he was building on an image of

a man who had earned the right to speak his mind, because he had been

willing to go to jail for the privilege.



In a completely different arena, Elvis Presley, a good friend of Ali’s,

delivered what one psychologist called a ’plea for tolerance to be left

alone, to be allowed to be different’ - entitled Blue Suede Shoes - with

a frenetic desperation that made the message much more powerful than the

original by the song’s author Carl Perkins.



There’s nothing wrong with Richard Nixon’s declaration that ’There will

be no whitewash at the White House,’ except that it’s being said by

Tricky Dicky. If Nixon had been a company, his corporate reputation at

that point would have been lower than Exxon’s after the Valdez oil

spill. Exxon’s post-spill announcement that 35 miles of beaches were

’environmentally clean’ is a classic example of a PR tactic that was

bound to backfire because a) nobody would believe anything Exxon said at

that point, and b) some of the beaches still had oil on them, which

forced a spokesman to admit the original statement didn’t mean ’every

oil stain is off every rock.’



It’s a sad fact of public life that while middle America is unswerving

in its support for the capitalist system, on any specific issue it is

more likely to trust Oprah Winfrey or Ralph Nader than any spokesperson

for corporate America. The only recent, glaring exception to this rule

is Chrysler’s former chairman (now business guru) Lee Iacocca.



Unlike many of his peers, Iacocca looked and sounded like he was more

than an empty suit. Through TV advertising, Iacocca made himself the

brand in a way the car industry had not seen since Henry Ford’s day, but

he was also one of the few business leaders who said things that were

interesting or funny enough to quote (as in his famous dictum about

corporate life: ’The trick is to make sure you don’t die waiting for

prosperity to come’). The fact that he’d been fired by Ford didn’t do

him any harm, either.



It’s easy to sneer at Iacocca’s happy knack of dispensing sound

bites.



Since Al Neuharth launched USA Today, which soon became dubbed ’McPaper’

by critics, it has become fashionable to say that the average guy now

has an attention span about as large as the long-term memory of a

goldfish, but has the change really been that dramatic? What is ’bread

and peace,’ the Bolshevik slogan in Russia in 1917, if not a sound bite?

Or the New Deal? Any person, as H.L. Mencken once said, who inflicts

ideas on the human race must be prepared to see them misunderstood and

the much decried culture of the sound bite is often just a way of

reinforcing that message.



The problem comes, as is now sadly often the case, when a public

figure’s collected sound bites don’t form a consistent narrative.



There is a certain hypnotic quality to those jerky black and white films

of leaders like Lenin rousing a crowd to frenzy with a speech. It’s easy

to assume they’re saying something groundbreaking when, in fact, they

could be merely rabble-rousing. Speeches, as Adolf Hitler proved, do not

have to be instruments of reason to sway an audience. Hitler, who

probably gave public speeches to 35 million people in his lifetime, used

to lose four to eight pounds after a particularly exhausting speech, a

strong hint that many of his orations were delivered in a trancelike

state. He once described his whole life ’as a successive struggle to

persuade people,’ and, when the tide of war turned against him, he

complained that, ’I will never be able to give a great speech

again.’



Hitler would never have risen to power without these speeches but he and

his cohorts, especially Josef Goebbels, left few details to chance.



Hitler once advised Hermann Goring to stop smoking cigars ’because one

does not become a monument with a cigar in one’s mouth.’ If he smiled in

the presence of a photographer he always covered his mouth, because he

did not want to be seen as an ordinary human. The rallies, the songs,

the films, the posters and the speeches were not designed to appeal to

reason but to bypass it, to raise the hair on the back of the audience’s

neck. It was Lenin who invented the term ’agitprop’ to describe

showpiece events staged to rally support to the cause - but it was

Hitler and Goebbels who perfected the practice. And yet, ultimately,

they served to disprove their own theory. Hitler’s ’big lie’ could not

be sustained without the continuous intervention of a massive propaganda

machine. Once that machine was switched off, it was as if the German

masses had emerged from 12 years of hypnosis.



Goebbels, like many other communicators mentioned here, was quick to

explore new techniques to reach the masses. This was a trait (probably

the only one) he shared with Abraham Lincoln, who made great use of

photography for his own ends, FDR, who exploited radio, and the

telegenic JFK. Pope John Paul II even decided that, in pursuit of his

mission, it would be appropriate to have his life story told in a Marvel

comic.



Self-publicity



The same versatility has been demonstrated by Norman Mailer, who

probably would have been the 20th century’s greatest self-publicist if

it weren’t for the likes of Ali, Liberace and Madonna. In his quest to

reach that part of America that would never read his novels, he appeared

on countless TV talk shows, co-invented (with Tom Wolfe) a new genre

called the non-fiction novel, stood for political office and directed

his own (appalling) movies. Only Mailer could have entitled one of his

books Advertisements for Myself, a title that effectively gives the game

away, describing his entire career. But has he exchanged ideas or

feelings with America?



Possibly. His piece in Esquire on JFK, ’Superman Comes to the

Supermarket,’ enabled him to be somewhere near the head of the line of

people who could claim they had kept Nixon out of the White House in

1961.



While Mailer’s Armies of the Night and The Executioner’s Song are both

on New York University’s list of the 100 examples of the best American

journalism of the 20th century, the individual with the largest body of

work on that list is not a print journalist but a broadcaster, Edward

Murrow. The opening words of his 1940 CBS radio broadcast, ’This is

London,’ may be the three most-famous words in the history of radio

journalism.



He would match that standard later when reporting on the liberation of

Buchenwald and investigating Senator Joseph McCarthy in 1954 on national

television. Not bad for a medium that had been dismissed as ’chewing gum

for the eyes.’



And like Murrow, Billy Graham has proved that the media - which the

religious right often views as the center of a godlessness rarely seen

since Sodom got its just deserts - can be used to serious purpose, as

has L. Ron Hubbard, ironically the only science-fiction author to be

listed as a great communicator.



Tall, blonde, handsome and Protestant, Graham rose to prominence in the

1950s, as a kind of Gary Cooper with Bible. He is now seen as the father

figure of his movement and, intriguingly, as the last of the great

American preachers with mass appeal. Whoever follows will, this theory

goes, have to deal with a more fragmented movement and society.



The effect of this fragmentation on our ability to exchange ideas,

information and feelings with each other has hardly been explored. But

as long ago as the 1950s, rock stars were using the media to send out

contrasting signals: defiance to the generation that wouldn’t approve of

them and reassurance to the youth who bought their records. As far back

as 1956, just two years after McCarthy was called to account by Murrow,

Elvis Presley was asked about the company that was making ’I hate

Elvis!’ buttons. Presley, who had one in his hand, flung it on the table

in mock outrage and sneered: ’He’s a Communist!’ Pretty heavy stuff for

1956 but his fan Bob Dylan would later take the same technique to

greater heights to create an aura of myth and obfuscation around his

life and work that may take years to dissipate.



This might suggest that mass communication, as practiced by Jesus and

Muhammad, is in danger of being replaced by an electronic Tower of Babel

where people of like mind speak only to each other. That remains a

disturbing possibility as the mass media reach smaller parts of the

masses. New forms of communication like e-mail may hinder our ability to

communicate as well as help it. Most scientific research shows that a

third of the information we take in when we listen to individuals

doesn’t have to do with what they’re saying but how they look, whether

they’re looking straight at us, or whether they’re fidgeting. E-mail

prevents us from picking up on any of those clues, denying us even the

ability to judge a person’s tone of voice.



Medium or message?



And yet the lesson of the 20th century is probably that we have failed

to live down to pundits’ expectations. Demagogues like McCarthy get

exposed by the very technologies that brought them to our attention. A

few years ago Gopac, the conservative group then allied to Newt

Gingrich, produced a handbook with the rather totalitarian title

Language: A Key Mechanism of Control, to be used by its candidates for

office. The booklet listed 69 positive words to be used to ’define your

vision’ (words like ’children,’ ’fair’ and ’truth’) and 64 negative

words to define opponents (’sick,’ ’traitor,’ ’liberal’). Marshall

McLuhan was wrong, the medium is not the message. As everyone from Bill

Gates to Rupert Murdoch to George W. Bush now realizes, you have to have

content. That must be good news for our ability to exchange ideas,

thoughts and feelings.



While it’s easy to sit back and decry our leaders’ inability to

communicate, maybe we also ought to look at ourselves. A recent National

Communications Association poll showed that most Americans would rather

communicate with the person who cuts their hair than with their in-laws.

The same poll suggests that 52% of parents are ’comfortable’ talking to

their kids about sex. Proof that public figures aren’t the only ones

deluding themselves about their communications skills?



Methodology



The PRWeek Greatest Communicators was compiled after extensive polling

of the industry in late 1999 through PRWeek, trade events, Profnet and

e-mail. A panel of judges evaluated the nominations obtained in this way

to select the final order.





Jesus Messiah, prophet, storyteller



4BC-29AD



Every era has its own Jesus. In the 20th century, in addition to his

traditional role as the Messiah, he has been reinvented as a musical

superstar, Jewish religious leader and the cult hero of a series of

bestsellers ’proving’ he didn’t die on the cross, but founded a dynasty

with his wife, Mary Magdalene.



For all this repositioning and trivializing, his words, as they survive

in the four gospels and other fragments, retain their power to move; the

Sermon on the Mount even inspired Mohandas Gandhi’s theory of

non-violent resistance.



He had a slight edge over many others in this list, in that if a crowd

wasn’t responding he could always perform a miracle. Throwing the

moneychangers out of the temple was also a marvellous publicity stunt -

although the notoriety that this involved wasn’t received well by all.

But he did his most effective work with parables that related to his

audience’s life.



And countless presidents and business folk would have saved themselves a

lot of pain if they’d remembered his suggestion that ’The truth shall

set you free.’ Even today, two billion people still define themselves as

Christians, although that definition covers a multitude of beliefs.





Muhammad



Prophet, general, administrator



570-632 AD



Few prophets have been as misunderstood as Abu al-Qasim Muhammad. In his

last speech, three months before his death, he said to his followers,

’It is true you have rights over your women but they also have rights

over you.’ The latter part of that admonition is often ignored by his

supporters.



Even though he couldn’t read until his encounter with God in a cave (he

never learned to write), he was an inspirational religious prophet who

defied torture and murder plots to convert the whole of Arabia to

monotheism. He was just as successful as a secular leader. He gave his

city, Medina, the first written constitution in history and told his

followers the best ’jihad’ (holy war) was against their own ego and

greed. He insisted that ’God is gentle and loves gentleness in all

things.’



None of that really comes across in the West’s image of Islam today,

which has something to do with the way his words have been interpreted

(distorted, some say) and the way the Western media interprets that

interpretation.



(Also working against him: Islamic tradition forbids pictures of him.)

That confusion will become more critical, as Islam is the world’s

fastest- growing religion (with 1.1 billion adherents) and the

fastest-growing faith in Europe and North America.





Martin Luther King Jr.



Minister, civil rights leader, martyr



1929-1968



A Hollywood screenwriter would have balked at the name; the allusion to

Christianity’s most conspicuous rebel and prophet would have seemed just

too obvious. But combining the moniker with Mohandas Gandhi’s philosophy

of non-violence, which he first came across as a 22-year-old student,

Martin Luther King Jr. acted as if he was determined to live up to the

expectation and the burden implied in that name.



From 1955, when he was asked to lead a campaign to desegregate buses in

Alabama, until his death, he did more than anyone else to make white

America face the self-evident truth that society wasn’t living up to

Thomas Jefferson’s fine words.



He knew the risks: his homes were dynamited, he was jailed 17 times and

eventually murdered, a fate he had half-foreseen in 1963 when he said

’If a man hasn’t discovered something he will die for, he isn’t fit to

live.’ But through his own eloquent writings and a masterful PR campaign

based on non-violent protests across the South, he created the climate

for JFK to finally launch a civil rights bill. In support of that bill,

during the march on Washington, he gave probably the finest speech of

the American century.





Winston Churchill



Prime minister, historian, war correspondent



1874-1965



Britain could not have beaten Adolf Hitler without Winston Churchill in

Number 10 Downing Street, and yet he could not have been prime minister

without Hitler. Only in the midst of the worst national crisis since

1066 did his peers overcome their distrust of the man.



His command of the English language (he wrote his own history of the

English-speaking peoples as well as his own speeches) intimidated

many.



But only war was made for his radio rhetoric. Perhaps because he was

even then a little behind the times, he seemed to symbolize the virtues

that had made Britain great and still made her an awkward opponent. His

’blood, toil, tears and sweat’ orations were accompanied by a massive

internal propaganda drive and a ruthless supervision of the most popular

paper, the Daily Mirror, to make sure it stayed on message.



His defiant, slightly cantankerous persona as a wartime leader was even

more remarkable considering that between 1941 and 1944 he suffered one

heart attack, two strokes, three bouts of pneumonia, a hernia, deafness

and a serious skin disease. Victory in war was followed by defeat at the

polls but he remained eminently quotable, coining the phrase ’iron

curtain’ in 1946.





Martin Luther



Monk, theologian, translator



1483-1546



Cometh the hour, cometh the monk and, fortuitously, cometh the

media.



If Martin Luther’s Ninety-five Theses had stayed nailed on the door of a

church in the quiet German town of Wittenberg in 1517, he might have

been just another turbulent priest. But Luther gave these theses to his

colleagues at his university and they were circulated through the recent

invention of Johannes Gutenberg, the printing press. Thus disseminated,

Luther’s thoughts became a challenge the church could not ignore and

which, a few decades before, would have ended his life.



Luther was no one-hit wonder. His lectures on the Bible between 1512 and

1519 made the book seem relevant to everyday life. His translation of

the New Testament into German was, apart from being a gripping

bestseller, the book that, more than any other single tome, helped shape

the German language.



In his later years, Luther published an awful diatribe against the

Jews.



But as a polemicist, he has few peers. Few men of his time would have

dared to tell Pope Leo X - as he did - that Rome was so depraved ’not

even the Antichrist could devise any addition to its wickedness.’





Thomas Jefferson



Writer, philosopher, president



1743-1826



Benjamin Franklin was laid up with gout and John Adams was AWOL, so it

fell to Thomas Jefferson to draft the Declaration of Independence. Much

of the 1,500 word draft is a list of grievances against George III that

drags somewhat, but the preamble - ’We hold these truths to be

self-evident’ - sets a standard of eloquence few American statesmen have

matched.



Jefferson was seen as a radical when elected president in 1800 (ladies

in Boston hid their Bibles under their mattresses the day the ’Virginia

atheist’ was inaugurated). But his political legacy is almost as diverse

as America. Ronald Reagan and Barry Goldwater quoted Jefferson on

states’ rights, New Dealers quoted his concern for the individual and

1960s radicals cited his dictum that there ought to be a rebellion every

generation.



Jefferson understood PR: he walked to his own inaugural and retired to a

local boarding house for two weeks in a calculated attempt to create an

image of Republican simplicity. He dominated Congress so much that, by

the time he left office, America was almost a one-party state. He died,

appropriately enough, on the 50th anniversary of the signing of his

finest work.





Franklin Delano Roosevelt



Governor, president



1882-1945



As the Democratic governor of New York, a state full of Republican

newspapers, FDR soon took his case to the people, paying for a weekly

fireside radio chat where he perfected the conversational style that

would later charm millions. Once, after a particularly vicious press

campaign against him, he said, ’Sometimes I wish the advent of

television could be hastened.’



But the task awaiting him when he took over as president in 1933 was to

communicate hope to a nation that had been without it since 1929. His

inaugural address, promising ’we have nothing to fear except fear

itself,’ did convey that hope, prompting 500,000 voters to flood the

White House within a week.



That gift never deserted him, although he sometimes blundered. His

unqualified promise that ’Your boys are not going to be sent into

foreign wars’ could have haunted him as much as George Bush’s ’no new

taxes.’ The famous foreign correspondent Alastair Cooke wonders how

successful he would have been if the press had ignored Louis Howe’s

dictum that they should photograph his boss only from the waist up.

Relations between press and president were somewhat different then,

luckily for Roosevelt and, ultimately, for America.





William Shakespeare



Dramatist, poet, propagandist



1564-1616



Hollywood’s favorite screenwriter, the most famous playwright in the

world and the author of the world’s most quoted sonnet (’Shall I compare

thee to a summer’s day?’), William Shakespeare was also a marvelous

propagandist for the Tudor and Stuart dynasties.



Many of his serious plays insisted that monarchs ruled by divine right

and anyone who interfered with that (either by murder like Macbeth or by

renunciation like Lear) paid a stiff penalty. His play Richard III is,

aside from its literary merit, a piece of black political propaganda

worthy of Josef Goebbels.



But Shakespeare’s real significance as a communicator is that, more than

any other single person, he has shaped the language we use today.



He coined up to 2,000 new words and countless phrases (like ’salad

days’) used in everyday conversation by billions who haven’t read his

work since they left school. His plays are believed to have been filmed

(for cinema and TV) over 400 times, have inspired several Broadway

musicals and formed the basis for a new bestselling book that repackages

the Bard as a management guru in the style of Tom Peters.





Abraham Lincoln



President, lawyer



1809-1865



As with another assassinated president, Lincoln’s fame as a communicator

rests, securely, on his speeches, particularly the Gettysburg Address

(although this was not recognized as a masterpiece by the crowd that

heard it in 1863). But, like JFK, the most effective communication

Lincoln ever did was through a relatively new medium, in his case,

photography.



He sat for more than 100 photographs and, although he always regaled

photographers with the story about his unsuccessful quest to find

someone uglier than himself, he knew his Honest Abe face was an asset.

He was not averse to the power of publicity: eight favorable press

cuttings were found in his pockets when he died and, in the Civil War,

he was happy to suspend newspapers in the state’s interest.



His words, even those of his most famous speech, did not come easily or

lightly. His prose was heavily influenced by the King James Bible and

Shakespeare but, while he could close a speech with the hope that

’government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not

perish from this earth,’ he could also compose limericks about Robert E.

Lee.





Aristotle



Philosopher, biologist, educator



384-322 BC



This ancient Greek is the missing link between Thomas Aquinas, John F.

Kennedy and Star Trek’s Mr. Spock. Notes of his lectures shaped Aquinas’

theology. His definition of happiness (the full use of your powers in

pursuit of excellence) was often quoted by JFK. And Aristotle invented

logic, without which the Enterprise’s first officer would have been

lost.



The son of a court physician in Macedonia, Aristotle was a student of

Plato, tutor of Alexander the Great and founder of his own seat of

learning, the Lyceum. What remains of his works (and his missing

treatise on comedy is the Holy Grail of literary history) are mainly

lecture notes. He wrote a constitution for the city of Athens, which was

discovered only in the 19th century, as well as seminal works on ethics

and politics (in which he is the first person to discuss a technique

that would later be known as propaganda).



His work was lost to the West for more than a millennium, but in the

East it influenced much Islamic thought. The translations from Arabic

into Latin, which began in 1120, made him the world’s most influential

intellectual even though he’d been dead for the best part of 1500

years.



TOP 10S: THE GREATEST COMMUNICATORS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

NEWS/ENTERTAINMENT

1        Edward Murrow

2        Walter Cronkite

3        Oprah Winfrey

4        Mike Wallace

5        Johnny Carson

6        Norman Mailer

7        Bob Dylan

8        Ted Turner

9        Walt Disney

10       Al Neuharth


BUSINESS

1        Lee Iacocca

2        Henry Ford

3        Jack Welch

4        Bill Gates

5        Akio Morita

6        Peter Drucker

7        Andrew Carnegie

8        William Randolph Hearst

9        Tom Peters

10       Donald Trump


RELIGION

1        Billy Graham

2        John Paul II

3        Martin Luther King Jr.

4        Mother Theresa

5        Bishop Desmond Tutu

6        L. Ron Hubbard

7        The Dalai Lama

8        Bishop Fulton J. Sheen

9        Ayatollah Khomeini

10       Pat Robertson


HUMAN RIGHTS/POLITICS

1        Martin Luther King Jr.

2        Winston Churchill

3        Franklin D. Roosevelt

4        Mohandas Gandhi

5        Nelson Mandela

6        Adolf Hitler

7        Ronald Reagan

8        Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

9        Mikhail Gorbachev

10       John F. Kennedy


SELF-PUBLICISTS

1        Mohammed Ali

2        Donald Trump

3        Madonna

4        Liberace

5        Norman Mailer

6        Bill Clinton

7        Larry Flint

8        Eva Peron

9        Martha Stewart

10       Howard Stern


AND FINALLY ...

THE PRWEEK TOP 10 PR PROS OF ALL TIME

1        Moses (God)

2        Josef Goebbels (Hitler)

3        Otto von Bismarck (Wilhelm)

4        Cardinal Richelieu (Louis XIII)

5        Louis Howe (FDR)

6        James Madison (Jefferson)

7        Martin van Buren (Jackson)

8        Leon Trotsky (Lenin)

9        Mark Anthony (Caesar)

10       James Baker (Reagan-Bush)



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